The 1980s were increasingly fragile. Growing concerns about persistent trade deficits, the dominance of Japanese companies in many U.S. markets, and trade barriers that moved U.S. products away from the Japanese market imposed a Japan agreement in 1985 that would limit the importation of Japanese computer chips into the United States. The following year, it fined Tokyo for violating the agreement. Other counter-measures followed. On July 2, 1987, members of the U.S. Congress broke a Toshiba radio station with hammers in time for the evening news to protest revelations that Toshiba had sold secret technologies to the Soviets. A small group of revisionist writers spread in the American media the idea that Japan was hellish to destroy the industrial sector of the United States; According to this argument, Japan wanted to win through unfair trade practices, which it failed to win during World War II. At the end of the decade, Japan was cautious.
In a 1989 Gallup poll, 57% of respondents in the United States said they see Japan as a greater threat to the United States than the Soviet Union. It took the bursting of the Japanese economic bubble and the invasion of Saddam Hussein in Kuwait in 1990 to prevent tensions between the United States and Japan from escalating. DONE in two ballot boxes in the city of San Francisco, in English and Japanese, on this eighth day of September 1951. On January 19, 1960, Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi and U.S. Secretary of State Christian Herter signed a historic contract. It forced the United States to defend Japan in the event of an attack by Japan and provided bases and ports to U.S. forces in Japan. The agreement has survived half a century of dramatic changes in world politics — the Vietnam War, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the proliferation of nuclear weapons in North Korea, the rise of China — and despite the heated trade controversies, the exchange of insults and deep cultural and historical differences between the United States and Japan. This treaty lasted longer than any other alliance of two great powers since the peace of Westphalia in 1648. The United States also expressed concern about the terms of the alliance. In accordance with Article 9 of the 1947 Japanese Constitution, which General Douglas MacArthur had imposed on the country, Japan renounced «war as the sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force in the settlement of international disputes» and pledged never to maintain «land, sea and air forces. , as well as any other potential for war.» The United States